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VIDEO — INTRO TO TM

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Depression (adolescent)

William Stixrud, Ph.D.

William Stixrud, Ph.D., is a clinical neuropsychologist and director of William Stixrud & Associates in Silver Spring, Maryland, a group practice specializing in learning, attention, and social/emotional disorders. Dr. Stixrud is an adjunct faculty at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C.

Here Dr. Stixrud answers questions
on adolescent depression.

Q: My teenage son has debilitating problems with depression. Can the TM technique help? 

Dr. Stixrud: We know that there’s a genetic component to depression, although genes contribute much less to depression than to other disorders such as autism and ADHD. The genetic contribution to depression is on the order of 35-50 percent, which means that most of the contribution doesn’t come from genetics. It comes from your experience, and the primary culprit is stress.

Experts describe depression as a disorder of stress dysregulation, which means that the body’s stress response, the fight-or-flight response, gets dysregulated. The parts of the brain that signal threat become hyperactive; they’re overly responsive. So for a long time before children get depressed, they feel stressed, they often feel anxious, and they feel that that world is more threatening than it really is. And over time the stress response gets worn out, and it stops functioning appropriately. And then the very mechanism that’s supposed to protect the child actually starts to work against him.
Related Scientific Research

Q: So it’s critically important to prevent depression in kids? 

Dr. Stixrud: One of the world’s top experts on child and adolescent mental health says that the highest political priority in this country should be preventing mental health problems in children and adolescents. By preventing these problems in childhood and adolescence, we could then prevent most adult mental health problems, for which we pay an enormous price in terms of human suffering and health care costs as well.

Preventing depression means, in part, creating an environment in which kids feel safe, in which their stress response doesn’t have to go off all the time—and also helping them learn to normalize their stress response. Certainly I’m a big fan of the stress-free schools movement, because it focuses on creating an environment in which kids can feel safe.

The second component in preventing depression is simply teaching children and adolescents how to normalize their own stress system, so they don’t have a hyperactive stress response that constantly warns them of dangers that either don’t exist or are greatly exaggerated. And of course, the Transcendental Meditation technique can help with this.

There may be many ways that we can contribute to that goal, and I see Transcendental Meditation as able to play a huge part in preventing depression in children and adolescents, because I think it’s so effective in creating environments in families and schools in which kids feel safe. And it teaches kids to normalize their own stress response so they don’t have a hyperactive stress system that is reacting to all manner of threats in an exaggerated way.
Related Scientific Research

Q: Is the Transcendental Meditation technique something that you recommend to your patients? 

Dr. Stixrud: Yes, and I’m not the only one. A top expert on childhood brain development and mental health problems once advised one of my young patients, who wanted to go off medicine for depression, in this way, “You’ve got my blessing, as long as you do three things: you keep a regular schedule; you get plenty of sleep; and you learn to meditate.” He said that because he’s worked at the National Institutes of Health, where researchers were studying the connection between stress and depression. He knew that when people get depressed, their stress hormones get imbalanced. This can be prevented by normalizing the stress response. Practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique twice a day helps young people build an orderliness, a structure and a routine into their day, which allows the nervous system to function better.
Related Scientific Research

Q: Is depression a widespread problem for kids? 

Dr. Stixrud: Yes, and one of the really worrisome things about depression is how much of it there is in young people. There’s not complete agreement, but many professionals in this area think that we’re seeing an epidemic of depression. Virtually everybody agrees that the onset of depression is much younger, so that a generation or two ago, the average age of onset of depression was 34 or 35. Now, it’s 14.

Researchers say that depression scars the brain, so that even if teenagers are treated for depression and it lifts, they’re more pessimistic than they were before. They have more trouble sleeping than they had before, which places them at risk for getting depressed again. And every time a person gets depressed, it makes it more likely that he or she will have a lifetime of depression, which is why experts say that the highest priority should be preventing mental health problems in adolescents.
Related Scientific Research

Q: It seems like there is more pressure on young people than ever before. 

Dr. Stixrud: I saw a boy with ADHD when he was 10, and he was very hyperactive, but also irrepressible, delightful, extremely funny, extremely smart, and an enormously likeable boy. I saw him again when he was 16, and he was on anti-depressants. I said, “So, what’s the story with the Zoloft?” And he said, “Well, they used to call me the Teflon Kid, because when I was younger everything just rolled off my back. I was always in a good mood. But then I hit high school, and I wasn’t getting enough sleep. I really wanted to go to Duke, and I started staying up until 1:00 a.m. every night trying to do as well as I could in school. And I got worn out. I just got depressed.”

And I think that this happens over and over and over again, particularly with girls, because once they hit adolescence, girls are at much higher risk for depression than boys are. I do a lot of consulting with private girls’ schools, many of which are very academically demanding. I’m trying to help them understand that in the long run, we don’t want these teenagers to be so tired and so stressed that they get depressed. At Harvard, for example, 80% of the student respondents to a newspaper survey said that they had felt depressed in the last year.
Related Scientific Research

Q: So the TM technique can give these children and teenagers relief from stress? 

Dr. Stixrud: I feel that teaching kids to practice the Transcendental Meditation program is arguably the best thing we could possibly do for them. I say this because it can help them to create environments that are relatively de-stressed, to normalize their own stress response, to build order and regularity into their routines, and to experience a deep level of happiness, creativity, and energy.
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