Transcendental Meditation, Self-actualization, and Psychological Health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis Alexander, C. N., Rainforth, M. V., & Gelderloos, P., Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6(5), 189-248, 1991.


Presents a life-span model of development based on the Vedic psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. This model proposes that systematic transcendence, as cultivated through the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, will promote self-actualization (SA). Statistical meta-analysis is presented of 42 studies on the effects of TM and other forms of meditation and relaxation on SA. The effect size of TM on overall SA was approximately 3 times as large as that of other forms of meditation and relaxation. Factor analysis of the 12 scales of the Personal Orientation Inventory revealed 3 independent factors: Affective Maturity, Integrative Perspective on Self and World, and Resilient Sense of Self. On these 3 factors, the effect of TM was 3 times as large. The magnitude of these consistent differential effects suggests that systematic transcendence is the key factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)