Research on the TM Technique

Hundreds of studies have been conducted at more than 200 independent universities and research institutions, and published in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) have awarded over $26 million to research TM’s effectiveness on stress and stress-related conditions.

"The Transcendental Meditation technique benefits from a vast body of 40 years of research showing very powerful long-lasting reductions in stress and sustained improvements in health."

—Norman Rosenthal, M.D., Psychiatrist, Georgetown University Medical School, best-selling author who is credited with the discovery of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Stress and anxiety See research >

Published 2000 to present

  • Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003 1(1):10
  • Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605
  • Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369
  • Broome JR, Orme-Johnson D, Schmidt-Wilk J. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):235-276
  • Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573
  • Chhatre S, Metzger DS, Frank I, Boyer J, Thompson E, Nidich S, Montaner LJ, Jayadevappa R. Effects of behavioral stress reduction Transcendental Meditation intervention in persons with HIV. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV 2013 25(10):1291-1297.
  • Elder C, Nidich S, Colbert R, Hagelin J, Grayshield L, Oviedo-Lim D, Nidich R, Rainforth M, Jones C, Gerace D. Reduced psychological distress in racial and ethnic minority students practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Instructional Psychology 2011 38(2):109-116
  • Elder C, Nidich S, Moriarty F, Nidich R. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on employee stress, depression, and burnout: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal 2014 18(1):19-23.
  • Goldstein L, Nidich SI, Goodman R, Goodman D. The effect of transcendental meditation on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and quality of life in mothers in Uganda. Health Care for Women International 2018 39(7):734-754. doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1445254
  • Grosswald SJ, Stixrud WR, Travis F, Bateh MA. Use of the Transcendental Meditation technique to reduce symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by reducing stress and anxiety: an exploratory study. Current Issues in Education [On-line] 2008 10(2).
  • Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792
  • Nidich SI, Nidich RJ, Salerno J, Hadfield B, Elder C. Stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in caregivers: a pilot study. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care 2015 1(2): 011
  • Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-133
  • Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2013 19:1-12
  • Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528
  • Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Significant reductions in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees within 10 days of Transcendental Meditation practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2014 27(1):112-115
  • Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626–630
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S.  Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension 2005 18(1):88-98
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064
  • Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MV, Kotchen T, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Kotchen JM, Alexander CN. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation and health education in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2012 5(6):750-758
  • Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, Tanner M, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009 71(2):170-176
  • Valosek L, Link J, Mills P, Konrad A, Rainforth M, Nidich S. Effect of meditation on emotional intelligence and perceived stress in the workplace: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal 2018 22:17-172. doi.org/10.7812/TPP/17-172 doi.org/10.7812/TPP/17-172
  • Walton KG, Cavanaugh KL, Pugh ND. Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: a prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):339-376
  • Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123
  • Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183

Published before 2000

  • Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237
  • Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 1993 6:245-262
  • Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476
  • Calderon R, Schneider R, Alexander CN, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans and whites: a review. Ethnicity and Disease 1999 9:451-462
  • Dillbeck MC. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1977 33(4):1076-1078
  • Dillbeck MC. Transcendental Meditation alleviates stress. In J-M Etkins (ed.), The State of Corrections: Proceedings of American Correctional Association Annual Conferences, 1988 (pp.157-161). Laurel, Maryland: American Correctional Association, 1989
  • Eppley K, Abrams A, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1989 45(6):957-974
  • Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86
  • Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 1978 34(5):618-619
  • Kanellakos DP. Transcendental consciousness: expanded awareness as a means of preventing and eliminating the effects of stress. In CD Speilberger, IG Sarason (eds), Stress and Anxiety, Volume 5 (pp.261-315). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1978
  • Knight S. Use of Transcendental Meditation to relieve stress and promote health. British Journal of Nursing 1995 4(6):315-318
  • MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, Levitsky DK, Mandarino JV, Waziri R, Hillis SL, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after four months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 22(4):277-295
  • Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing and reversing the effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998 12(5):297-299
  • Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827
  • Shaw RM, Dettmar DM. Monitoring behavioural stress control using a craniomandibular index. Australian Dental Journal 1990 35(2):147–151
  • Sheppard DH, Staggers F, John L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 1997 10(4):341-350
  • Staggers Jr F, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: the potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):297-331
  • Walton KG, Pugh ND. Stress, steroids, and ‘Ojas’: neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1995 39(1):3-36
  • Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, Macrae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283
Brain function See research >

Published 2000 to present

  • Alexander CN, Kurth SC, Travis F, Alexander VK. Effect of practice of the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique on cognitive stage development: acquisition and consolidation of conservation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):21-46
  • Arenander A, Travis FT. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman, J Nair (eds), Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: WW Norton, 2004
  • Dixon C, Dillbeck MC, Travis F, Msemaje H, Clayborne BM, Dillbeck SL, Alexander CN. Accelerating cognitive and self development: longitudinal studies with preschool and elementary school children. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):65-91
  • Harung H, Travis F, Blank W, Heaton D. Higher development, brain integration, and excellence in leadership. Management Decision 2009 47(6):872-894
  • Heaton D, Harung HS. Awakening creative intelligence and peak performance: reviving an Asian tradition. Chapter in J Kidd et al. (eds), Human Intelligence Deployment in Asian Business. London: Macmillan, and New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001
  • Hebert JR, Lehmann D, Tan G, Travis FT, Arenander A. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing 2005 85(11):2213-2232
  • Mahone MC, Travis F, Gevirtz R, Hubbard D. fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice. Brain and Cognition 2018 123:30-33. doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.011 <http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.02.011>
  • Nidich SI, Schneider RH, Nidich RJ, Foster G, Sharma H, Salerno J, Goodman R, Alexander CN. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on intellectual development in community-dwelling older adults.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):217-226
  • So KT, Orme-Johnson DW. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 2001 29(5):419-440
  • Sridevi K, Krishna Rao PV. Temporal effects of meditation on cognitive style. Journal of Indian Psychology2003 21:38-51
  • Travis F. Brain functioning as the ground for spiritual experiences and ethical behavior. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 2009 78(5):26-32
  • Travis FT. Autonomic and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2001 42(1):1-9
  • Travis FT, Arenander A. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 2006 116(12):1519-38
  • Travis FT, Arenander A, DuBois D. Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral/self-referral continuum of self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 2004 13(2):401-420
  • Travis FT, Brown S. My brain made me do it: brain maturation and levels of self-development. In AH Pfaffenberger, PW Marko, T Greening (eds), The Postconventional Personality: Perspectives on Higher Development (pp. 23-38). New York: SUNY Press, 2011
  • Travis F, Grosswald S, Stixrud W. ADHD, brain functioning, and Transcendental Meditation practice. Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry 2011 2(1):73-81
  • Travis FT, Haaga DH, Hagelin JS, Tanner M, Arenander A, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and the Transcendental Meditation practice. Cognitive Processing 2010 11(1):21-30
  • Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, Tanner M, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009 71(2):170-176
  • Travis F, Parim N. Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: focused attention or automatic self-transcending? Brain and Cognition 2017 111 :86-94 .  doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2016.08.009
  • Travis FT, Tecce J, Arenander A, Wallace RK. Patterns of EEG coherence, power and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 2002 61(3):293-319
  • Travis FT, Tecce JJ, Guttman J. Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Biological Psychology 2000 55(1):41-55
  • Travis F, Valosek L, Konrad IV A, Link J, Salerno J, Scheller R, Nidich S. Effect of meditation on psychological distress and brain functioning: a randomized controlled study. Brain and Cognition 2018 125:100-105. doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.011 <http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.011>
  • Warner TQ. Awareness and cognition: the role of awareness training in child development. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):47-64
  • Yamamoto S, Kitamura Y, Yamada N, Nakashima Y, Kuroda S. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama 2006 60(1):51-58

Published before 2000

  • Appelle S, Oswald LE. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 38(3):1263-1268
  • Aron A, Orme-Johnson D, Brubaker P. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: a four-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 1981 15(2):140-146
  • Banquet JP. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1973 35(2):143-151
  • Banquet JP, Sailhan M. Analyse E.E.G. d’états de conscience induits et spontanés. Revue d’Electroencéphalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique 1974 4(3):445-453
  • Bennett JE, Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 1977 14(3):293-296
  • Cranson RW, Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Jones CH, Alexander CN, Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 1991 12(10):1105-1116
  • Dillbeck MC. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving. Memory and Cognition 1982 10(3):207-215
  • Dillbeck MC, Araas-Vesely S. Participation in the Transcendental Meditation program and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986 29(1/2):45-55
  • Dillbeck MC, Bronson EC. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 14(3/4):147-151
  • Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 15(3):151-157
  • Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encephale 1984 10:139-144
  • Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86
  • Hebert JR, Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1977 42(3):397-405
  • Jevning R, Wallace RK, Beidebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1992 16(3):415-424
  • Levine PH. The coherence spectral array (COSPAR) and its application to the spatial ordering of the EEG. Proceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium 1976 15:237-247
  • McEvoy TM, Frumkln LR, Harkins SW. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 1980 10(2/3):165-170
  • Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Landrith III GS. Intersubject EEG coherence: is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(3/4):203-209
  • Subrahmanyam S, Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1980 1:73-88
  • Travis FT. Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. Journal of Creative Behavior 1979 13(3):169-180
  • Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 49(3/4):203-211
  • Travis FT, Tecce JJ. Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1998 31(1):45-50
  • Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: a basis for a neural model of TM practice. Consciousness and Cognition 1999 8(3):302-18
  • Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson DW, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC. Academic achievement and the paired Hoffman reflex in students practicing meditation. International Journal of Neuroscience 1984 24 (3/4):261-266
  • Wandhofer A, Kobal G, Plattig K-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrift für Elektroenzephalographie und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG 1976 7(2):99-103
  • Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1975 39(5):519-522
Cardiovascular health See research >

Published 2000 to present

  • Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 2008 21(3):310-316
  • Bai Z, Chang J, Chen C, Li P, Yang K, Chi I. Investigating the effect of transcendental meditation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Journal of Human Hypertension 2015 29 :653 – 662.
  • Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012:923153, 1-6.
  • Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218
  • Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30
  • Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation® Program: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):227-242
  • Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216
  • Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605
  • Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369
  • Bovee JC. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: a literature review. Modern Psychological Studies 2006 11:1-11
  • Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, Fuchs F, Hughes JW, Lackland DT, Staffileno BA, Townsend RR, Rajagopalan S. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2013 61(6):1360-1383
  • Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573
  • Cunningham CH, Brown S, Kaski JC. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X: a pilot study. American Journal of Cardiology 2000 85(5):653-655
  • Fields JZ, Walton KW, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Pomerantz R, Suchdev P, Castillo-Richmond A, Payne K, Clark ET, Rainforth M. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 2002 89(8):952-958
  • Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Gaylord-King C, Rainforth M, Tanner M, Travis F, Nidich S, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on substance use among university students. Cardiology Research and Practice 2011 – published online at Cardiol Res Pract. 2011:537101
  • Jayadevappa R, Johnson JC, Bloom BS, Nidich S, Desai S, Chhatre S, Razian D, Schneider RH. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 2007 17:72-77
  • King MS, Carr T, D'Cruz C. Transcendental meditation, hypertension and heart disease. Australian Family Physician 2002 31:164-168
  • Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792
  • Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-1331
  • Ooi SL, Giovino M, Pak SC. Transcendental meditation for lowering blood pressure: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2017 34:26-34. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965229917302285
  • Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Hankey AM, Chalmers RA. Reply to critics of research on Transcendental Meditation in the prevention and control of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2005 23(5):1107-1108
  • Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Schneider RH. Transcendental Meditation for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: R Allan, J Fisher (eds), Heart & Mind: the Practice of Cardiac Psychology, 2nd edition (pp.365-379). Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2011
  • Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, Velasquez I, Nidich SI, Rainforth M, Schneider RH, Bairey Merz CN. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 166(11):1218-1224
  • Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528
  • Schneider RH. Response to AHA scientific statement on alternative methods and BP: evidence for upgrading the ratings for Transcendental Meditation. Hypertension 2013 62(6):e42
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S.  Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension 2005 18(1):88-98
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064
  • Schneider RH, Carr T. Transcendental Meditation in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and pathophysiological mechanisms: an evidence-based review. Advances in Integrative Medicine (online) 2014.
  • Schneider RH, Castillo-Richmond A, Alexander CN, Myers H, Kaushik V, Aranguri C, Norris K, Haney C, Rainforth M, Calderon R, Nidich S. Behavioral treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Medicine 2001 27(2):83-95
  • Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MV, Kotchen T, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Kotchen JM, Alexander CN. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation and health education in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2012 5(6):750-758
  • Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:159-160
  • Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity & Disease 2006 16(3) Supplement 4:15-26
  • Walton KG, Olshansky B, Helene E, Schneider RH. A pooled analysis of outcome studies with carotid intima-media thickness. Journal of Preventative Cardiology 2014 4(1):615-623
  • Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI. Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease—risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Cardiology in Review 2004 12(5):262-266
  • Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123
  • Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183

Published before 2000

  • Agarwal BL, Kharbanda A. Effect of transcendental meditation on mild and moderate hypertension. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1981 29:591-596
  • Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237
  • Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476
  • Cooper M, Aygen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 1978 95(1):1-2
  • Herron R, Schneider RH, Mandarino JV, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Cost-effective hypertension management: comparison of drug therapies with an alternative program. American Journal of Managed Care 1996 2(4):427-437
  • Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Wallace RK. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: a review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In EH Johnson et al. (eds), Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension (pp.291-312). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1992
  • Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827
  • Wallace RK, Silver J, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC, Wagoner DE. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 1983 45(1):41-46
  • Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, Macrae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283
  • Wenneberg SR, Schneider RH, McLean C, Levitsky DK, Walton KG, Mandarino JV, Salerno JW, Wallace RK, Waziri R. A controlled study of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. International Journal of Neuroscience 1997 89(1/2):15-28
  • Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, Robinson DK, Salerno JW. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1996 77 (10):867-870
Depression See research >

Published 2000 to present

  • Barnes VA, Rigg JL, Williams JJ. Clinical case series: treatment of PTSD with Transcendental Meditation in active duty military personnel. Military Medicine, 2013 178(7):e836-40. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00426.
  • Chhatre S, Metzger DS, Frank I, Boyer J, Thompson E, Nidich S, Montaner LJ, Jayadevappa R. Effects of behavioral stress reduction Transcendental Meditation intervention in persons with HIV. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 2013, 25(10):1291-1297. doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2013.764396.
  • Elder C, Nidich S, Colbert R, Hagelin J, Grayshield L, Oviedo-Lim D, Nidich R, Rainforth M, Jones C, Gerace D. Reduced psychological distress in racial and ethnic minority students practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 2011, 38(2):109-116.
  • Elder C, Nidich S, Moriarty F, Nidich R. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on employee stress, depression, and burnout: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal, 2014, 18(1):19-23.
  • Hawkins MA. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in criminal rehabilitation and substance abuse recovery: a review of the research. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 2003, 36(1-4):47-66.
  • Jayadevappa R, Johnson JC, Bloom BS, Nidich S, Desai S, Chhatre S, Razian D, Schneider RH. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease, 2007 17:72-77.
  • Nidich S, Nidich RJ, Salerno J, Hadfield B, Elder C. Stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in caregivers: a pilot study. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2015, 1(2): 011.
  • Nidich S, O’Connor T, Rutledge T, Duncan J, Compton B, Seng A, Nidich R. Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: a randomized controlled trial. The Permanente Journal, 2016, 20(4):16-007. doi.org/10.7812/TPP/16-007.
  • Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension, 2009 22(12):1326-1331.
  • Orme-Johnson DW. The use of meditation in corrections. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2011, 55(4):662-664. doi:10.1177/0306624X10371803.
  • Walton KG, Levitsky DK. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with aggression and crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 2003 36(1-4):67-88.

Published before 2000

  • Berg WP, Mulder B. Psychological research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on a number of personality variables. Behaviour: Journal of Psychology, 1976 4:206-218.
  • Brooks JS, Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 1985 64:212-215.
  • Candelent T, Candelent G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1975 26(3):156-159.
  • Ferguson PC, Gowan JC. Psychological findings on Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1976 16(3):51-60.
  • Fergusson LC, Bonshek AJ, Boudigues J-M. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: a case study of student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 1995 22:308-319.
  • Jevning R, Pirkle H, Wilson AF. Behavioral alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration. Physiology and Behavior, 1977 19(5):611-614.
  • Kniffki C. Transcendental Meditation and Autogenous Training—a Comparison. In series: Mind and Psyche. Munich: Kindler Verlag, 1979
  • Sheppard DH, Staggers F, John L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 1997, 10(4):341-350.
  • Taub E, Steiner SS, Weingarten E, Walton KG. Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: a long-term, randomised, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation, EMG biofeedback and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 1994 11(1/2):187-220.
Insomnia See research >
  • Abrams AI, Siegel LM. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: a cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 1978, 5(1):3-20.
  • Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 1993, 6:245-262.
  • Brooks JS, Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 1985, 64:212-215.
  • Elder C, Nidich S, et al, Effect of Transcendental Meditation on Employee Burnout: A randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal, 2014, Winter; 18(1):19-23.
  • Haratani T., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.
  • Ljunggren G. The influence of Transcendental Meditation on neuroticism, use of drugs and insomnia. Lakartidningen, 1977, 74(47):4212-4214.
  • Lovell-Smith H. D. Transcendental Meditation: treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician, 9: 62-65, April 1982.
  • Nidich S, O’Connor T, Rutledge T, Duncan J, Compton B, Seng A, Nidich R. Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: a randomized controlled trial. The Permanente Journal, 2016, 20(4):16-007.
  • Orme-Johnson DW & Dillbeck MC. Methodological Concerns for Meta-Analyses of Meditation: Comment on Sedlmeier et al. Psychological Bulletin,2014, 140(2):610-16.
  • Orme-Johnson D. W., et al. Meditation in the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. In National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, Bethesda Maryland: National Institutes of Health, 1995.
PTSD See research >
  • Barnes VA. Transcendental Meditation and treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (Editorial comment). The Lancet Psychiatry 2018 5(12):946-947. doi.org/10.1016/
  • Barnes VA, Monto A, Williams JJ, Rigg JL. Transcendental  Meditation® and psychotropic medication use among active duty military service members with anxiety and PTSD. Military Medicine 2016 181(1):56-63. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00333
  • Barnes VA, Rigg JL, Williams JJ. Clinical case series: treatment of PTSD with Transcendental Meditation in active duty military personnel. Military Medicine 2013 178(7):e836-40.
  • Herron R, Rees B. The Transcendental Meditation Program’s impact on the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder of veterans: an uncontrolled pilot study. Military Medicine 2018 183(1-2):e144-e150. doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx059 <http://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx059>
  • Kang SS, Erbes CR, Lamberty GJ, Thuras P, Sponheim SR, Polusny MA, Moran AC, Van Voorhis AC, Lim KO. Transcendental Meditation for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 2018 10(6):675-680. http://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000346
  • Nidich S, Mills PJ, Rainforth M, Heppner P, Schneider RH, Rosenthal NE, Salerno J, Gaylord-King C, Rutledge T. Non-trauma-focused meditation versus exposure therapy in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry 2018 5(12):975-986. doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30384-5 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30384-5>
  • Nidich S, O’Connor T, Rutledge T, Duncan J, Compton B, Seng A, Nidich R. Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: a randomized controlled trial. The Permanente Journal 2016 20(4):16-007.  doi.org/10.7812/TPP/16-007
  • Nidich S, Seng A, Compton B, O’Connor T, Salerno J W, Nidich R. Transcendental Meditation and reduced trauma symptoms in female inmates: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal 2017 21(1):16-008. doi.org/10.7812/TPP/16-008 Transcendental Meditation and Reduced Trauma Symptoms in Female Inmates: A Randomized Controlled Study.
  • Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Reduction in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2013 26(2):295-298
  • Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Significant reductions in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees within 10 days of Transcendental Meditation practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2014 27(1):112-115
  • Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626?630
Addiction See research >
  • Alexander C.N., et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994.
  • Aron E.N. and Aron A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28-33, 1983.
  • Clements G., et al. The use of the Transcendental Meditation programme in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 40(1): 51?56, 1988.
  • Gelderloos P., et al. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293?325, 1991.
  • Orme-Johnson D. W. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: Theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11, 119-165, 1994.
  • Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219-236, 1994.
  • Shafii M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60-63, 1974.
  • Shafii M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942-945, 1975.
  • Wallace R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369-376, 1972.
  • Walton K. G., and Levitsky, D.A. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 89-117, 1994.