Research on the TM Technique

Commonly cited research studies

Reduced stress and anxiety

Published 2000 to present

Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003 1(1):10

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369

Broome JR, Orme-Johnson D, Schmidt-Wilk J. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):235-276

Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573

Chhatre S, Metzger DS, Frank I, Boyer J, Thompson E, Nidich S, Montaner LJ, Jayadevappa R. Effects of behavioral stress reduction Transcendental Meditation intervention in persons with HIV. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV 2013 25(10):1291-1297.

Elder C, Nidich S, Colbert R, Hagelin J, Grayshield L, Oviedo-Lim D, Nidich R, Rainforth M, Jones C, Gerace D. Reduced psychological distress in racial and ethnic minority students practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Instructional Psychology 2011 38(2):109-116

Elder C, Nidich S, Moriarty F, Nidich R. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on employee stress, depression, and burnout: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal 2014 18(1):19-23.

Grosswald SJ, Stixrud WR, Travis F, Bateh MA. Use of the Transcendental Meditation technique to reduce symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by reducing stress and anxiety: an exploratory study. Current Issues in Education [On-line] 2008 10(2).

Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792

Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-133

Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2013 19:1-12

Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528

Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Significant reductions in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees within 10 days of Transcendental Meditation practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2014 27(1):112-115

Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626–630

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S.  Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension 2005 18(1):88-98

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064

Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MV, Kotchen T, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Kotchen JM, Alexander CN. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation and health education in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2012 5(6):750-758

Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, Tanner M, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009 71(2):170-176

Walton KG, Cavanaugh KL, Pugh ND. Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: a prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):339-376

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183

Studies published before 2000

Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237

Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 1993 6:245-262

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476

Calderon R, Schneider R, Alexander CN, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans and whites: a review. Ethnicity and Disease 1999 9:451-462

Dillbeck MC. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1977 33(4):1076-1078

Dillbeck MC. Transcendental Meditation alleviates stress. In J-M Etkins (ed.), The State of Corrections: Proceedings of American Correctional Association Annual Conferences, 1988 (pp.157-161). Laurel, Maryland: American Correctional Association, 1989

Eppley K, Abrams A, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1989 45(6):957-974

Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 1978 34(5):618-619

Kanellakos DP. Transcendental consciousness: expanded awareness as a means of preventing and eliminating the effects of stress. In CD Speilberger, IG Sarason (eds), Stress and Anxiety, Volume 5 (pp.261-315). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1978

Knight S. Use of Transcendental Meditation to relieve stress and promote health. British Journal of Nursing 1995 4(6):315-318

MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, Levitsky DK, Mandarino JV, Waziri R, Hillis SL, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after four months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 22(4):277-295

Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing and reversing the effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998 12(5):297-299

Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827

Shaw RM, Dettmar DM. Monitoring behavioural stress control using a craniomandibular index. Australian Dental Journal 1990 35(2):147–151

Sheppard DH, Staggers F, John L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 1997 10(4):341-350

Staggers Jr F, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: the potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):297-331

Walton KG, Pugh ND. Stress, steroids, and ‘Ojas’: neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1995 39(1):3-36

Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, Macrae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283

Enhanced brain function

2000 to present

Alexander CN, Kurth SC, Travis F, Alexander VK. Effect of practice of the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique on cognitive stage development: acquisition and consolidation of conservation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):21-46

Arenander A, Travis FT. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman, J Nair (eds), Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: WW Norton, 2004

Dixon C, Dillbeck MC, Travis F, Msemaje H, Clayborne BM, Dillbeck SL, Alexander CN. Accelerating cognitive and self development: longitudinal studies with preschool and elementary school children. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):65-91

Harung H, Travis F, Blank W, Heaton D. Higher development, brain integration, and excellence in leadership. Management Decision 2009 47(6):872-894

Heaton D, Harung HS. Awakening creative intelligence and peak performance: reviving an Asian tradition. Chapter in J Kidd et al. (eds), Human Intelligence Deployment in Asian Business. London: Macmillan, and New York: St. Martin's Press, 2001

Hebert JR, Lehmann D, Tan G, Travis FT, Arenander A. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing 2005 85(11):2213-2232

Nidich SI, Schneider RH, Nidich RJ, Foster G, Sharma H, Salerno J, Goodman R, Alexander CN. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on intellectual development in community-dwelling older adults.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):217-226

So KT, Orme-Johnson DW. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 2001 29(5):419-440

Sridevi K, Krishna Rao PV. Temporal effects of meditation on cognitive style. Journal of Indian Psychology 2003 21:38-51

Travis F. Brain functioning as the ground for spiritual experiences and ethical behavior. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 2009 78(5):26-32

Travis FT. Autonomic and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2001 42(1):1-9

Travis FT, Arenander A. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 2006 116(12):1519-38

Travis FT, Arenander A, DuBois D. Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral/self-referral continuum of self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 2004 13(2):401-420

Travis FT, Brown S. My brain made me do it: brain maturation and levels of self-development. In AH Pfaffenberger, PW Marko, T Greening (eds), The Postconventional Personality: Perspectives on Higher Development (pp. 23-38). New York: SUNY Press, 2011

Travis F, Grosswald S, Stixrud W. ADHD, brain functioning, and Transcendental Meditation practice. Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry 2011 2(1):73-81

Travis FT, Haaga DH, Hagelin JS, Tanner M, Arenander A, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and the Transcendental Meditation practice. Cognitive Processing 2010 11(1):21-30

Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, Tanner M, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009 71(2):170-176

Travis FT, Tecce J, Arenander A, Wallace RK. Patterns of EEG coherence, power and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 2002 61(3):293-319

Travis FT, Tecce JJ, Guttman J. Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Biological Psychology 2000 55(1):41-55

Warner TQ. Awareness and cognition: the role of awareness training in child development. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):47-64

Yamamoto S, Kitamura Y, Yamada N, Nakashima Y, Kuroda S. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama 2006 60(1):51-58

Before 2000

Appelle S, Oswald LE. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 38(3):1263-1268

Aron A, Orme-Johnson D, Brubaker P. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: a four-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 1981 15(2):140-146

Banquet JP. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1973 35(2):143-151

Banquet JP, Sailhan M. Analyse E.E.G. d’états de conscience induits et spontanés. Revue d’Electroencéphalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique 1974 4(3):445-453

Bennett JE, Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 1977 14(3):293-296

Cranson RW, Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Jones CH, Alexander CN, Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 1991 12(10):1105-1116

Dillbeck MC. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving. Memory and Cognition 1982 10(3):207-215

Dillbeck MC, Araas-Vesely S. Participation in the Transcendental Meditation program and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986 29(1/2):45-55

Dillbeck MC, Bronson EC. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 14(3/4):147-151

Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 15(3):151-157

Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encephale 1984 10:139-144

Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86

Hebert JR, Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1977 42(3):397-405

Jevning R, Wallace RK, Beidebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1992 16(3):415-424

Levine PH. The coherence spectral array (COSPAR) and its application to the spatial ordering of the EEG. Proceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium 1976 15:237-247

McEvoy TM, Frumkln LR, Harkins SW. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 1980 10(2/3):165-170

Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Landrith III GS. Intersubject EEG coherence: is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(3/4):203-209

Subrahmanyam S, Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1980 1:73-88

Travis FT. Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. Journal of Creative Behavior 1979 13(3):169-180

Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 49(3/4):203-211

Travis FT, Tecce JJ. Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1998 31(1):45-50

Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: a basis for a neural model of TM practice. Consciousness and Cognition 1999 8(3):302-18

Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson DW, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC. Academic achievement and the paired Hoffman reflex in students practicing meditation. International Journal of Neuroscience 1984 24 (3/4):261-266

Wandhofer A, Kobal G, Plattig K-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrift für Elektroenzephalographie und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG 1976 7(2):99-103

Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1975 39(5):519-522

Cardiovascular health

Published 2000 to present

Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 2008 21(3):310-316

Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012:923153, 1-6.

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation® Program: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):227-242

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369

Bovee JC. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: a literature review. Modern Psychological Studies 2006 11:1-11

Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, Fuchs F, Hughes JW, Lackland DT, Staffileno BA, Townsend RR, Rajagopalan S. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2013 61(6):1360-1383

Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573

Cunningham CH, Brown S, Kaski JC. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X: a pilot study. American Journal of Cardiology 2000 85(5):653-655

Fields JZ, Walton KW, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Pomerantz R, Suchdev P, Castillo-Richmond A, Payne K, Clark ET, Rainforth M. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 2002 89(8):952-958

Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Gaylord-King C, Rainforth M, Tanner M, Travis F, Nidich S, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on substance use among university students. Cardiology Research and Practice 2011 – published online at Cardiol Res Pract. 2011:537101

Jayadevappa R, Johnson JC, Bloom BS, Nidich S, Desai S, Chhatre S, Razian D, Schneider RH. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 2007 17:72-77

King MS, Carr T, D'Cruz C. Transcendental meditation, hypertension and heart disease. Australian Family Physician 2002 31:164-168

Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792

Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-1331

Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Hankey AM, Chalmers RA. Reply to critics of research on Transcendental Meditation in the prevention and control of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2005 23(5):1107-1108

Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Schneider RH. Transcendental Meditation for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: R Allan, J Fisher (eds), Heart & Mind: the Practice of Cardiac Psychology, 2nd edition (pp.365-379). Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2011

Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, Velasquez I, Nidich SI, Rainforth M, Schneider RH, Bairey Merz CN. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 166(11):1218-1224

Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528

Schneider RH. Response to AHA scientific statement on alternative methods and BP: evidence for upgrading the ratings for Transcendental Meditation. Hypertension 2013 62(6):e42

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S.  Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension 2005 18(1):88-98

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064

Schneider RH, Castillo-Richmond A, Alexander CN, Myers H, Kaushik V, Aranguri C, Norris K, Haney C, Rainforth M, Calderon R, Nidich S. Behavioral treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Medicine 2001 27(2):83-95

Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MV, Kotchen T, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Kotchen JM, Alexander CN. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: randomized, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation and health education in blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2012 5(6):750-758

Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:159-160

Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity & Disease 2006 16(3) Supplement 4:15-26

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI. Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease—risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Cardiology in Review 2004 12(5):262-266

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183

Heart studies on TM published before 2000

Agarwal BL, Kharbanda A. Effect of transcendental meditation on mild and moderate hypertension. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1981 29:591-596

Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476

Cooper M, Aygen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 1978 95(1):1-2

Herron R, Schneider RH, Mandarino JV, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Cost-effective hypertension management: comparison of drug therapies with an alternative program. American Journal of Managed Care 1996 2(4):427-437

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Wallace RK. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: a review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In EH Johnson et al. (eds), Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension (pp.291-312). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1992

Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827

Wallace RK, Silver J, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC, Wagoner DE. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 1983 45(1):41-46

Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, Macrae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283

Wenneberg SR, Schneider RH, McLean C, Levitsky DK, Walton KG, Mandarino JV, Salerno JW, Wallace RK, Waziri R. A controlled study of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. International Journal of Neuroscience 1997 89(1/2):15-28

Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, Robinson DK, Salerno JW. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1996 77 (10):867-870

Additional research topics
Depression

Elder C, Nidich S, Colbert R, Hagelin J, Grayshield L, Oviedo-Lim D, Nidich R, Rainforth M, Jones C, Gerace D. Reduced psychological distress in racial and ethnic minority students practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Instructional Psychology 2011 38(2):109-116

Elder C, Nidich S, Moriarty F, Nidich R. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on employee stress, depression, and burnout: a randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal 2014 18(1):19-23.

Ferguson P.C., et al. Psychological Findings on Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 16:483-488, 1976.

Insomnia

Orme-Johnson DW & Dillbeck MC. Methodological Concerns for Meta-Analyses of Meditation: Comment on Sedlmeier et al. Psychological Bulletin 2014; 140(2):610-16.

Elder C, Nidich S, et al, Effect of Transcendental Meditation on Employee Burnout: A randomized controlled study. The Permanente Journal, 2014 Winter; 18(1):19-23.

Haratani T., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.

Lovell-Smith H. D. Transcendental Meditation?treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician 9: 62?65, April 1982.

Orme-Johnson D. W., et al. Meditation in the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. In National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, Bethesda Maryland: National Institutes of Health, 1995.

Addiction

Alexander C.N., et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994.

Aron E.N. and Aron A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28-33, 1983.

Clements G., et al. The use of the Transcendental Meditation programme in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 40(1): 51?56, 1988.

Gelderloos P., et al. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293?325, 1991.

Gelderloos P., et al. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293?325, 1991.

Orme-Johnson D. W. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: Theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11, 119-165, 1994.

Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219-236, 1994.

Shafii M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60-63, 1974.

Shafii M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942-945, 1975.

Wallace R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369-376, 1972.

Walton K. G., and Levitsky, D.A. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 89-117, 1994.

PTSD

Barnes VA, Rigg JL, Williams JJ. Clinical case series: treatment of PTSD with Transcendental Meditation in active duty military personnel. Military Medicine 2013 178(7):e836-40. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00426

Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Reduction in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2013 26(2):295-298

Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Significant reductions in posttraumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees within 10 days of Transcendental Meditation practice. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2014 27(1):112-115

Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626?630

Pain Reduction

Orme-Johnson D.W, et al. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 17(12):1359-63, 2006.

Mills W. W. and Farrow J. T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 43(2): 157–164, 1981.

Zammara J. W., et al. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 77, 867-870, et al.

Workplace Efficiency and Productivity

Alexander C. N., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress-reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Stress, Anxiety and Coping, 6, 245–262, 1993.

Alexander C. N., et al. Promoting adult psychological development: Implications for management education. Proceedings of the Association of Management, Human Resource Management 2, 133–137, 1990.

Appelle S. and Oswald L.E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263-1268, 1974.

Broome R., et al. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation Program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 235–276, 2005.

Frew D.R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362-368, 1974.

Harung H. S., et al. Peak performance and higher states of consciousness: A study of world-class performers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11, (4), 3–23, 1996.

Holt W.R. et al. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

McCollum B. Leadership development and self development: An empirical study. Career Development International, 4, (3). 149–154, 1999.

Schmidt-Wilk J. Developing consciousness in organizations: The Transcendental Meditation program in business. Journal of Business & Psychology, 10, (4), 429–444, 1996.

So K.T., et al. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.

Schmidt-Wilk J. Consciousness-based management development: Case studies of international top management teams. Journal of Transnational Management Development, 5, (3), 61–85, 2000.

Warshal D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103-1106, 1980.

Academic Performance

Fergusson L.C. Field Independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.

Kember P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164-166, 1985.

Nidich S.I., et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49-54, 1986.

Nidich S.I. and Nidich R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302-304, 1989.

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.

Eyerman J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35-36, 1981

Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.

Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.

Intelligence, Creativity and Learning Ability

Alexander C. N. and Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1105–1116, 1991.

Aron A., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140-146, 1981.

Cranson R.W., et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.

Dillbeck M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207-215, 1982.

Dillbeck M.C., et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731-738, 1986.

Fergusson L.F., et al. Vedic Science based education and nonverbal intelligence: A preliminary longitudinal study in Cambodia. Higher Education Research and Development 15: 73-82, 1995.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.

Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167-182, 1975.

Travis F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-180, 1979.

Warner T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419-440, 2001.

Health Care Costs and Utilization

Herron, R. E. Changes in Physician Costs Among High-Cost Transcendental Meditation Practitioners Compared with High-Cost Non-practitioners Over 5 Years. American Journal of Health Promotion 2011; 26(1): 56–60.

Herron R. E. Can the Transcendental Meditation Program Reduce the Medical Expenditures of Older People? A Longitudinal Cost-Reduction Study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005; 17(1): 415–442.

Herron, R. E., Hillis, S. L. The Impact of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec: An Update. American Journal of Health Promotion 2000; 14(5): 284–291.

Orme-Johnson D. W., Herron R. E. An Innovative Approach to Reducing Medical Care Utilization and Expenditures. American Journal of Managed Care 1997; 3: 135–144.

Herron R. E., et al. The Impact of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996; 10: 208–216.

Herron, R.E., et al. Cost-Effective Hypertension Management: Comparison of Drug Therapies with an Alternative Program. American Journal of Managed Care 1996; Vol. II(4): 427–437.

Orme-Johnson D.W. Medical Care Utilization and the Transcendental Meditation Program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1987; 49: 493–507.

Integration of Personality

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental consciousness: a fourth state of consciousness beyond sleep, dreaming, and waking. in J. Gackenbach (ed.), Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 282–315, 1986.

Alexander C.N., et al. Growth of higher stages of consciousness: Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. in Charles N. Alexander and Ellen J. Langer (eds.), Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press (1990).

Alexander C. N., et al. Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In C. N. Alexander and E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (p. 3-32). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Alexander C. N., et al. Advanced human development in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Theory and research. In M. E. Miller and S. R. Cook-Greuter (Eds.), Transcendence and mature thought in adulthood: The further reaches of adult development (pp. 39-70). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994.

Alexander C.N., et al. Effect of Practice of The Children’s Transcendental Meditation Technique on Cognitive Stage Development: Acquisition And Consolidation of Conservation, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17, 21-46, 2005.

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189-247, 1991.

Chandler H.M., et al. Transcendental Meditation and postconventional self-development: A 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 93–121, 2005.

Gelderloos P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003-1012, 1987.

Gelderloos P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613-614, 1987.

Gelderloos P. and Beto, Z. H. A. D. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reported experiences of transcendental consciousness. Psychologia—An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 32(2): 91–103, 1989.

Gelderloos P., et al. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.

Gelderloos P., et al. Transcendence and psychological health: studies with long-term participants of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Psychology 124(2), 177–197, 1990.

Jedraczak A. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and field independence. Perceptual and Motor Skills 59: 999-100, 1984.

Nidich S., et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565-566, 1973.

Pelletier K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031-1034, 1974.

Seeman W., et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184-187, 1972.

Longevity

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950-964, 1989.

Alexander C. N., et al. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 35, 243-264, 1994.

Barnes V. A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans—eight year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17(1) 201-216, 2005.

Glaser J. L., et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15: 327-341, 1992.

Schneider R. H., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 11; 159-60, 2001.

Schneider R.H., et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005.

Wallace R.K., et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53-58, 1982.

Free Radicals

Schneider R.H., et al. Lower lipid peroxide levels and practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 60: 38-41, 1998.

Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 12:31-38, 1998.

Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Differential Effects of Relaxation Techniques on Ultraweak Photon Emission. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 14:241-250, 2008.

Metabolic Syndrome/Pre-Diabetes

Paul-Labrador M., et al. Effects of randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 166:1218-1224, 2006.

Criminal Rehabilitation

Abrams A.I. and Siegel L.M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5: 3-20, 1978.

Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation in criminal rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36 (1/2/3/4): 2003.

Alexander C. N., et al. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners I: Cross-sectional differences in development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36: 97-126, 2003.

Alexander C. N. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners II: Longitudinal study of development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36: 127-160, 2003.

Alexander C. N., et al. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners III: Reduced recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36: 161-180, 2003.

Anklesaria F. K. and King,M. S. Highlight: A community-based sentencing program for probationers. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36: 35-46, 2003.

Bleick C.R. and Abrams A.I. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice 15: 211-230, 1987.

Dillbeck M. C. and Abrams, A. I. The application of the Transcendental Meditation program to correction. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 11(1): 111–132, 1987.

Orme-Johnson D. W. Prison rehabilitation and crime prevention through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. In Holistic approaches to offender rehabilitation, ed. Leonard J. Hippchen, Chapter 15, 346–383. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publishing, 1981.